TABLE OF CONTENTS

(Please click the links below for summaries of the individual topics.)

Key to the Measures
inside front cover
How to Use the Energy Efficiency Manual
front endsheet
A Personal Note: The Right Way to Do Energy Conservation
7
Expression of Gratitude
13
17
1.1 Equipment Scheduling and Operating Practices
19
1.2 Boiler Plant Efficiency Measurement
43
1.3 Air-Fuel Ratio
59
1.4 Burner and Fan Systems
71
1.5 Draft Control
93
1.6 Firesides and Watersides
109
1.7 Combustion Gas Heat Transfer and Heat Recovery
119
1.8 Condensate, Feedwater, and Water Treatment
137
1.9 Fuel Oil Systems
173
1.10 Steam and Water Leakage
181
1.11 Conduction and Radiation Losses
211
1.12 System Design for Efficient Low-Load Heating
225
237
2.1 Equipment Scheduling and Operating Practices
239
2.2 Optimum Operating Temperatures
263
2.3 Condenser and Evaporator Heat Transfer Efficiency
275
2.4 Heat Rejection Equipment
289
2.5 Pump Energy Consumption
317
2.6 Compressors
331
2.7 Refrigerant Condition
337
2.8 System Design for Efficient Low-Load Cooling
355
2.9 Exploiting Low Ambient Temperature for Water Chilling
367
2.10 Heat Recovery from Chillers
385
2.11 Cooling Thermal Storage
405
437
3.1 Reducing Service Water Consumption
439
3.2 Water Heating Systems
457
3.3 Service Water Pumping
479
497
4.1 Minimizing Duration of Operation
505
4.2 Outside Air Intake and Building Pressurization
517
4.3 Single-Zone Systems
579
4.4 Single-Duct Reheat Systems
605
4.5 Dual-Duct Reheat Systems
637
4.6 Multizone Systems
651
4.7 Variable-Air-Volume Single-Duct Systems
661
4.8 Variable-Air-Volume Dual-Duct Systems
681
4.9 Induction Systems
691

Section 5: ROOM CONDITIONING UNITS
& SELF-CONTAINED HVAC EQUIPMENT

701
5.1 Minimizing Equipment Operation
703
5.2 Radiators and Convectors
719
5.3 Fan-Coil Units
741
5.4 Self-Contained Air Conditioners and Through-Wall Heat Pumps
753
5.5 Remotely Cooled Air Conditioning Units and Heat Pumps
763
5.6 Heat Pump Loop Systems (Additional Measures)
779
5.7 Direct-Fired Heating Units
797
805
6.1 Personnel Doors
807
6.2 Garage, Loading, and Equipment Doors
825
6.3 Window Air Leakage
859
6.4 Other Envelope Leakage
863
873
7.1 Roofs and Attics
875
7.2 Walls and Soffits
889
7.3 Glazing Insulation
907
913
8.1 Reducing Cooling Load: Windows & Skylights
917
8.2 Reducing Cooling Load: Opaque Surfaces & Overall
953
8.3 Daylighting
965
8.4 Passive Solar Heating
1007

Section 9: ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING

1017
9.1 Lamps and Fixtures, Incandescent
1021
9.2 Lamps and Fixtures, Fluorescent
1045
9.3 Lamps and Fixtures, H.I.D. and L.P.S.
1071
9.4 Lighting Controls, Manual
1085
9.5 Lighting Controls, Automatic
1097
9.6 Lighting Layout
1115
9.7 Fixture Maintenance and Marking
1151
1159
10.1 A.C. Induction Motors
1161
10.2 Centrifugal Pumps
1177
10.3 Fans
1187
10.4 Standby Equipment
1193
1197

Group 1. ENERGY MANAGEMENT TOOLS

1199
10. Clock Controls and Programmable Thermostats
1199
11. Personnel Sensors
1205
12. Placards
1213
13. Energy Management Control Systems
1219
14. Control Signal Polling
1227
15. Infrared Thermal Scanning
1229
16. Measurement of Liquid, Gas, and Heat Flow
1233
17. Energy Analysis Computer Programs
1239

Group 2. ENERGY SOURCES

1247
20. Fossil Fuels
1247
21. Electricity Pricing
1251
22. Low-Temperature Heat Sources & Sinks
for Heat Pumps and Cooling Equipment
1259
23. Non-Fossil Energy Sources
1267
24. Characteristics of Sunlight
1283

Group 3. MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT

1289
30. Boiler Types and Ratings
1289
31. How Cooling Efficiency is Expressed
1297
32. Compression Cooling
1299
33. Absorption Cooling
1323
34. Refrigerants
1331
35. Centrifugal Pumps
1339
36. Variable-Speed Motors and Drives
1347
37. Control Characteristics
1379

Group 4. BUILDING ENVELOPE

1385
40. Building Air Leakage
1385
41. How Insulation Works
1389
42. Vapor Barriers
1393
43. Insulation Selection
1397
44. Insulation Integrity
1403
45. Insulation Economics
1405
46. Daylighting Design
1407
47. Passive Solar Heating Design
1417

Group 5. LIGHTING

1425
50. Measuring Light Intensity
1425
51. Factors in Lighting Quality
1427
52. Comparative Light Source Characteristics
1439
53. Lighting Efficiency Standards
1447
54. Incandescent Lighting
1449
55. Fluorescent Lighting
1461
56. H.I.D. and L.P.S. Lighting
1473
57. Light Distribution Patterns of Fixtures

1483
Contributors of Illustrations
1485
Disclaimer & Warning
1488
INDEX
1489