Overview of …


This Section of the Energy Efficiency Manual is for everyone involved in the operation, maintenance, design, and use of water systems. From residential apartments to the tallest skyscrapers, you will become an expert in water conservation.

The cost of water includes the cost of the water itself, the cost of heating hot water, and the cost of pumping water. In this Section, you will learn how to save money in all three areas.

Service water or domestic water systems exist to deliver cold water and hot water for consumption. In residential and commercial facilities, service water is used in three main areas: (1) sanitary applications, including lavatories, showers, toilets, and urinals, (2) food and beverage applications, including food preparation, dishwashing, and drinking fountains, and (3) lawn and plant watering.

Industrial uses of service water are even more varied. They include washing, cooling, and use of water as an ingredient in materials being manufactured. Water must be purchased to replace water that is discharged to the sewer, water that evaporates, and water that becomes part of products.

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